The publications below can be accessed by clicking each link. These articles are published on external sites and are listed here for the purpose of creating a library of work related to the research Napa Medical Research Foundation is conducting.


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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a genetic defect resulting in absent dystrophin, yet children are able to walk when small and young but lose this ability as they grow. The mdx mouse has absent dystrophin yet does not exhibit significant disability.

Allometric modeling of linearly increasing load per muscle fiber and stress on the sarcolemma with growth and exponential decline associated with loss of muscle fibers correlated with case studies and animal models of DMD.

Smaller species or breeds are predictably less affected than large as follows: mdx mice < small golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs < large GRMD dogs < humans. Case reports of combined growth hormone and dystrophin deficiency show a relatively benign course of disease. CONCLUSIONS:
Future therapeutic trials in DMD might include specific growth inhibitors in combination with standard of care treatments to delay the clinical onset and reduce the severity of disease and disability.


Ultrasound (US) has been used in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome since the 1980s. The first report of US-guided carpal tunnel release (CTR) was published in 1997, with cadaver and clinical reports confirming the safe navigation of surgical tools with US for division of the transverse carpal ligament. The MANOS CTR device was recently reported as a minimally invasive tool for CTR, and may be well suited for use with US guidance.

The authors report three cases of US-guided CTR using the MANOS CTR device. The MANOS device was inserted in a blunt configuration into the safe zone, and the cutting surface was deployed with a thumb-activated trigger that simultaneously ejected a sharp through the palm. The transverse carpal ligament was divided safely and confirmed with US.

US allowed for clear identification of the median nerve, safe zones, transverse carpal ligament, and the MANOS CTR device in relation to all pertinent structures of the carpal tunnel. Complete division of the transverse carpal ligament was confirmed in all three cases. There were no median nerve, vessel, tendon injuries, or chronic regional pain syndrome in any of the three cases.

US-guided CTR with the MANOS CTR device appears to be a safe technique and successful in confirming complete release.


High-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography of the hand, wrist and elbow has significant potential to improve the quality of diagnosis and care provided by neuromuscular and musculoskeletal specialists. In patients referred for weakness, pain and numbness of the hand, wrist or elbow, diagnostic ultrasonography can be an adjunct to electrodiagnosis and help in identifying ruptured tendons and treating conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome or trigger finger. Use of a small high-frequency (>10-15 MHz) transducer, an instrument with a blunt pointed tip to enhance sonopalpation and a model of the hand, wrist and elbow is advised to enhance visualization of small anatomical structures and complex bony contours. A range of conditions, including tendon and ligament ruptures, trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, intersection syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, and osteoarthritis, is described along with detailed ultrasonography-guided injection techniques for carpal tunnel syndrome and trigger finger.


We present two cases of shoulder pain and weakness following influenza and pneumococcal vaccine injections provided high into the deltoid muscle. Based on ultrasound measurements, we hypothesize that vaccine injected into the subdeltoid bursa caused a periarticular inflammatory response, subacromial bursitis, bicipital tendonitis and adhesive capsulitis. Resolution of symptoms followed corticosteroid injections to the subacromial space, bicipital tendon sheath and glenohumeral joint, followed by physical therapy. We conclude that the upper third of the deltoid muscle should not be used for vaccine injections, and the diagnosis of vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction should be considered in patients presenting with shoulder pain following a vaccination.


Bodor M, Lesher JM: Ultrasound-guided Greater Trochanteric Bursa and Gluteal Tendon Injections.
Bodor M, Colio S: Ultrasound-guided Aspiration of a Hip Paralabral Cyst.
In: Malanga G and Mautner K. Atlas of Ultrasound-guided Musculoskeletal Injections. New York: McGraw-Hill, in press.

Bodor M, Toy A, Aufiero D: Disc Regeneration with Growth Factors.
In: Lana, JF, editor. Platelet Rich Plasma. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2014.

Bodor M, Lesher JM, Colio S: Ultrasound-guided Hand, Wrist and Elbow Injections. In: Narouze, S, editor.
Atlas of Ultrasound Guided Procedures in Interventional Pain Management. 1st edition. New York: Springer Science+Business Media; 2011.

Bodor M: Differential Diagnosis and Imaging of Shoulder Disorders.
In: Shoulder Disorders, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine Course Symposia, September 2011.

Ultrasound-guided Hand, Wrist and Elbow Injections

Bodor M, Colio S, Bonzon C: Ultrasound-guided Hand, Wrist and Elbow Injections. In: Narouze, S, editor. Multi-modality Image-guided Procedures in Interventional Pain Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press, in press.

Ultrasound-guided Foot and Ankle Injections

Bodor M, Colio S, Toy A: Ultrasound-guided Foot and Ankle Injections. In: Narouze, S, editor. Multi-modality Image-guided Procedures in Interventional Pain Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press, in press.

Shoulder Pathokinesiology and Rehabilitation

Bodor M:  Shoulder Pathokinesiology and Rehabilitation. In: Shoulder Pain, American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine Course Symposia, November 2004.